CO 2 hydrates are stable only at more than m water depths, while gas hydrates are stable at around m depths. Thus, it is the CO 2 stability that constrains the depths, and consequently the distance from the mainland, at which CO 2 storage coupled with methane recovery could be conducted. Figure 7 overlaps the areas defined by Bernardes et al. Two of the areas partly coincide.
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In a perspective of potential recovery of methane from gas hydrates and CO 2 storage, future research should focus in those overlapping two areas Figure 7. Countries with a deep continental margin not distant from the shoreline may envisage the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from the storage of CO 2 as hydrates in sub-seabed sediments. However, economic feasibility of that option can only come from added value of recovering CH 4 from existing gas hydrates.
Storing CO 2 hydrates with simultaneous recovery of CH 4 from gas hydrates can contribute to mitigate climate change, while addressing the increasing energy demand. The goal of this article was to define areas, in the Portuguese geological continental margin, simultaneously with conditions favorable to the stability of the CO 2 hydrates and gas hydrates. A GIS was implemented with data on bathymetry, pressure, seabed temperature, sediment thickness, organic carbon content, sedimentation rates and an updated geothermal gradient.
The code delineates areas where hydrates are stable and computes the thickness of the gas hydrate stability zone GHSZ. Gas hydrates are stable at water depths over m, contrasting to the m water depth required for the CO 2 hydrates stability Bernardes et al. The average thickness of the GHSZ is averaged in m, with a maximum value of m. The Full Compaction scenario indicates that gas hydrates can form in the Portuguese continental margin in three main areas. Two of those areas coincide with the areas defined by Bernardes et al.
Future research focusing on those areas, should assess existing seismic sections in order to verify the existence of a BSR, and collect accurate data on the particulate organic carbon and the sedimentation rate. Furthermore, and in order to test the possibility of CO 2 injection, petrophysic and hydraulic characterization of the sub-seabed sediments should be conducted.
The simulations including vertical fluid flow indicate that it is possible for biogenic gas hydrates to form in the area of the accretionary wedge, even though the particulate organic carbon is not high. This corroborates Leon et al. Special acknowledgement to Frederico Dias for the first major paper revision. Pedro Madureira was the contacts manager for data access and geological adviser. Cristina Roque was the marine geology adviser. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license http: Energy Policy and Climate Change: A Multidisciplinary Approach to a Global Problem.
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Volume 8, Issue 9. No citations found yet 0. Create a SciFeed alert for new publications With following keywords gas hydrates.
One email with all search results. One email for each search. Open Access This article is freely available re-usable Energies , 8 9 , ; doi: Introduction Anthropogenic CO 2 emissions are pointed as the main driver of global climate change and its negative impacts in nature and society [ 1 ]. Location of the CO 2 hydrates stability zones defined in Bernardes et al. Gas hydrates phase boundary conditions, according to several authors Adapted from Thakur [ 12 ]. Also depicted dashed black line the non-linear equation applied in this article. Sedimentation rate data and source.
GHI estimates for the several scenarios and sensitivity analysis. Acknowledgments Special acknowledgement to Frederico Dias for the first major paper revision. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Cambridge, UK, ; p. Paris, France, ; p. Near-future perspective of CO 2 aquifer storage in Japan: Site selection and capacity.
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Global distribution of methane hydrate in Ocean Sediment. Energy Fuel , 19 , — A new global gas hydrate budget based on global inventory of methane hydrates in marine sediments using transfer functions. Biogeosciences , 10 , — Energies , 5 , — Estimation of the global inventory of methane hydrates in marine sediments using transfer functions. Analysis of the global data set. A transfer function for the prediction of gas hydrate inventories in marine sediments. Biogeosciences , 7.
A predictive numerical model for potential mapping of the gas hydrate stability zone in the Gulf of Cadiz. The quest for the Africa—Eurasia plate boundary west of the Strait of Gibraltar. Madrid, Spain, ; Volume 8, p. AGU , New discovery of a mud-volcano field related to gas venting in the Gulf of Cadiz: Imagery of multibeam data and ultra-high resolution data. Clathrate Hydrates of Natural Gases , 3rd ed.
Gas hydrates stability domains in the Portuguese Margin. The influence of CaCO 3 dissolution on core top radiocarbon ages for deep-sea sediments. Paleoceanography , 6 , — Changes in east Atlantic deepwater circulation over the last 30, years: Eight time slice reconstructions. Paleoceanography , 9 , — Mediterranean outflow strengthening during northern hemisphere coolings: A salt source for the glacial Atlantic?
Late Quaternary sedimentation processes and sediment accumulation changes off Portugal. Particulate organic carbon flux in the oceans—Surface productivity and oxygen utilization. Benthic carbon mineralization on a global scale. Thiede et al [ 30 ]. An In-Depth View of concerns, Programming Practices, and Implementation of Key tools Exploring the demanding situations of parallel programming from the point of view of quantum chemists, Parallel Computing in Quantum Chemistry completely covers themes correct to designing and imposing parallel quantum chemistry courses.
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